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十大彩票  > 访谈·视点

曾毅: 新一代人工智能 联合国可持续发展目标的加速器

2019-06-18 光明日报
【字体:

yuyinbobao

  无接触物流、行动轨迹采集分析……人工智能在抗疫中的广泛应用,让人们再次感受到这一颠覆性技术的强大能力。不过,一系列忧虑也随之而来。人工智能应用的门槛会不会进一步加大收入差距?个人信息的采集会不会威胁信息安全?针对这些问题,科学家们也在考虑,如何让人工智能成为可持续发展目标实现的助力,而非阻碍。这既是写入国家《新一代人工智能发展规划》的战略目标,也是国家《新一代人工智能治理原则》的明确愿景,更是近期联合国秘书长公布的“数字合作路线图”中的核心议题之一。

  1.人工智能推动可持续发展成为国际共识

  lianheguokechixufazhanmubiaozhizaidao2030nianjiejueshehui、jingjihehuanjingsangeweidudefazhanwenti,zoushangkechixufazhandaolu。kechixufazhanmubiaohuyu“suoyouguojia(bulungaiguoshipinqiong、fuyuhaishizhongdengshouru)xingdongqilai,zaicujinjingjifanrongdetongshibaohudiqiu”。gaimubiaozhichu,yingzhangqizhiliyuxiaochupinkun、shixianlianghaojiankangyufuzhi、shixianyouzhijiaoyu、xingbiepingdeng、qingjieyinshuiheweishengsheshi、jingjishiyongdeqingjienengyuan、chuangxinhejichusheshi、jianshaobupingdeng、kechixuchengshi、qihoubianhuahebaohuhuanjingdeng。errujin,renmenyuelaiyueyishidao,rengongzhinengzaizheixielingyuquandoudayoukewei。

十大彩票  tongguorengongzhinengtuidongkechixufazhanmubiaodeshixianyiyinqibutongguojiahediqudeguangfanguanzhuyutuidong。niujindaxuefaqide“rengongzhinengyukechixufazhanniujinchangyi”zhizaitansuodangqianheweilairengongzhinengruheyongyubangzhuzhichihetuidonglianheguokechixufazhanmubiaodeshixian。alianqiuzaidibaijianlilerengongzhinengyukechixufazhanzhongxin,yituoqijinnianlaizairengongzhinenglunliyuzhilifangmiandajiandeguojishidacaipiaopingtaicujinrengongzhinengyukechixufazhandeguojiduihuahejishuluodi。2015nianchengliderengongzhinengzaofurenleijijinhuizhizaitongguoxiediaorengongzhinengyanjiushequ、juecezhehedazhonglaituidonglianheguokechixufazhanmubiaodeshixian,bingzaimeiguo、yingguo、siluowenniyadengdisheyouyunxingjigou。

  rengongzhinengzuowei“shinengjishu”tuidongkechixufazhanmubiaodeshixianzailianheguoyeyixingchengzhongyaogongshi。gegelianheguochengyuanguo、xiangguanxueshujigou、chanyedengyezaixianghuxiezuogongtongtuijin。lianheguoguojidianxinlianmengmeinianyuqitalianheguoshitijigouhezuozhaokairengongzhinengzaofurenleiquanqiufenghui,gaixiliefenghuizhizaitigongquanqiuduihuapingtai,tantaoruheliyongrengongzhinenglaijiasushixianlianheguokechixufazhanmubiao,congerbangzhujiejuegengduodequanqiuxingwenti。guojidianxinlianmenghaifaqilequanqiurengongzhinengziliaokulaishoujiyucujinkechixufazhanmubiaoyouguanderengongzhinengxiangmu、yanjiuchangyi、zhikuhezuzhideng。yu2020nian6yue12rifabude《lianheguomishuzhangshuzihezuoluxiantu》baogaozhongzhichu,yingyizuijiafangshibushurengongzhinengzhichishixiankechixufazhanmubiao,bingzaofugongzhong。

  weishixianlingjiedeyuanjing,zaicujinnongzuowudeshengchanyugongyingfangmian,keyicaiyongjiqixueximoxingbingjieheqihoujianmolaiyucenongzuowutedingdiqudechanliang,tuxiangchulijishukeyongyujiancenongzuowudeshengzhangzhuangkuang,bingduiqianzaifengxian、zaoqichonghaihejibingfachujinggao,fuzhutishengnongzuowuchanliang。haikeyicaiyongzhinengwuliujishucujinnongzuowuyuzuizhongxiaofeizhezhijiandewufengduijie。

十大彩票  qihoubianhuashikechixufazhanmubiaozhongdezhongyaoyiti,jiyuqihoudashujudejiqixuexiyuyuceyanjiujiangjijicujinrenleiduiyuqihoubianhuaderenshi,caiyongjisuanmonidengshouduanduigaishancelvejixiangyingzuoyongjinxingjianmo,jiangyouzhuyuweirenleicaiquyouliyugaishanquanqiuqihoudexingdongtigongfenxiyuzhichi。

  zaihuanjingbaohufangmian,zidongzhinengjiankongjishukeyiyongyuduihuanjingdeziranzaihai、pohuaihuanjingdexingweijinxingjiance,duomotaishujuchulikeyongyushuizhiyukongqizhiliangdejianceyuyuce,moshishibieyuzidongkongzhijishuderonghehaikeyongyushixianzidonglajifenjianyuchuli。

  zaiwenhuachuanchenglingyu,rengongzhinengkeyongyucujinrenleiwenmingderonghefazhan。bujinyingdangyingyongsanweizhongjianjishu、wenzishibiejishuwajuewenhuayichan,baohuyishuyuwenhuazuopin,gengyingtongguoziranyuyanchuliyulijie、tuxiangfenxidengjishushixianwenhuadeguanlianyujiaohu。gengketongguojiqixuexiyuzidongshengchengjishutuidongwenhua、yishuzuopindezaichuangzao。

  rengongzhinengzhongxinxideganzhi、rongheyujuecejishunenggoutuidongguojiayushehuizhilitixideshidacaipiao。liyongrengongzhinengcujinhepingyuzhengyizhiguanzhongyao,ruliyongrenlianshibiejishuxunzhaodiushihaitong、fanzuifenzi,weihushehuiyuguojiaanquan,liyongjiqixuexizaijinronglingyujiankonghefaxianqizha、taoshui、xiqiandengxingwei,jianshaoqizhahefubai。ciwai,rengongzhinengjiangyouzhuyutuidonggonggongweishengzhilitixideshidacaipiao,jiyuganzhiyujuecejishushixianduigonggongweishengshijian、zhongdayiqingdeyujing、yingjiguanliyuzhili。

  2.警惕负面影响,确保技术“善”用

  kechixufazhanmubiaoshejidelingyuzhongduo,hangaimianguang,danshibingbushiyuzheixielingyuxiangguanjishituidonglezheigelingyudekechixufazhan。rengongzhinengzaiyingyongyukechixufazhanxiangguanlingyushikeyifahuijijizuoyong,tuidonglingyudefazhan,yekeyidaozhifumianyingxiang,zuailingyudefazhan。guanzhurengongzhinengyingyongyuxiangguanlingyuduishehui、shengtaidezhangqiyingxiangshihengliangkechixuxingdezhongyaoshijiao。

十大彩票  liru,rengongzhinengyuwangluojishuderonghefazhanjiangweicujinyouzhijiaoyudeshixiantigongjichusheshihefazhanqiji,rutongguogexinghuaxueximoxingtishengjiaoyuzhiliangyuxiaoguo,wajuebingcujinbutonggetideqianlifahui,jiangkenengweibutongxingbie、butongzhongzuderentigongyouzhidejiaoyuziyuan。ranerjiangrenlianshibiejishuyingyongyujiaoshineixueshengbiaoqing、zhuanzhududengfangmiandeshibiesuiranjuyouguangfandeqianzaiyingyongchangjing,danquebushiyigekechixufazhandeanli。jishibiaoqingtezhengnenggoutongguojisuanzhunquefanyingxueshengzhuangtai,zheileijishujiangyouqianzaifengxianqinfanxueshengyinsi,jiangdixueshengzaiketangzhongdenengdongxing,yinqixueshengdefangan,ercizhongqingxuzaizhenggejiaoyujieduandejileishenzhikenengyinqixueshengduirengongzhinengjishudeyane(ruyouxiangguanjishudefazhanzhiliyushishexiangtoujiancebudaorenlianxinxi)。cileirengongzhinengzaijiaoyuzhongdeyingyongshibufuhejiaoyudekechixufazhanmubiaode。

十大彩票  zairuxinguanfeiyanyiqingqijiancaijidegerenxinxiyudashujufenxiyujuecejishuxiangjiehe,beiyongyugonggongweishengyujingyuyiqingyingjiguanli,zuoweirengongzhinengyugonggongweishenglingyudeshenduronghezaiyiqingfangkongqijianfahuileguanjiandejijizuoyong。ranergenjushijieweishengzuzhiyouguanguifanyijishidacaipiaoguominzhengbu、wangxinban、gongxinbu、weishengbudengbuweibanbudeyouguanguiding,yiqingqijiancaijidegerenshujuxianyuzaiyiqingqijianyoubiyaobumenjinxinghelishiyong,yiqingguohouruxutayongxuyaozhongxinzhengdexiangguangerentongyi。yinciduigerenxinxideguoducaijihuoyiqingqijiancaijidegerenxinxizaimeiyouzhiqingtongyideqingkuangxianuozuotayong,doubufuheshidacaipiaoguozhengfuyouguanguidingyijirengongzhinengcujingonggongweishengkechixufazhandeyuanjing。

十大彩票  zairengongzhinengxiangguanjishuyingyongyutuidongkechixufazhanmubiaoshixiandeguochengzhong,youyuxiangguanjishuhuijiderenqunfanweikenengyouxian,shenzhikenengyincijiajulebupingdengwenti。rutongguorengongzhinengzengqiangdeyouzhijiaoyushifounenggoubaozhengpianyuanshanqudexueshengtongdengxiangyou,zairuyierweimaweirukoudejiankangmajijiyucidexiangguanshidacaipiaoruhehuijineixiedaduobushanyuyongshenzhibuyongshoujidelaonianqunti,doujiangbutongchengdutiaozhangongpingxiangyoujishufazhanchengguodechuzhong。

  ciwai,rengongzhinengmoxingkenengcongshujuzhonghuoqubingyingyongrenleidepianjian,zheijiangyoukenengjiajubupingdengdexianxiang,yucujingongpingbeidaoerchi。liru,zhinengtuijianxitongkenengyouyushujudepianjianzaizhiyetuijianfangmianbiaoxianchuduinannvhebutongfuserenzhongdemingxianpiancha,zheijiangyurengongzhinengyingyongyujiuyedelianghaochuzhongbeidaoerchi,congkechixufazhandeshijiaolaikan,rengongzhinengjishukeyongyuwajuebingcujinruoshiquntifahuiqiyoushi,cujingongpingjiuye。tongshi,henduorenlianshibiemoxingyushidacaipiaoduiyunvxingshibielvmingxiandiyunanxing,butongfuserenzhongzaishehuianquanfuzhujuecexitongzhonghuibeifuyupianjian,douyoudaiweilaigengwanshanderengongzhinengtuidonggongpinggongzhengdekechixufazhan。qizhongtongguozhinengzengqiangjishutishengmangren、longyarendeganzhi、goutong、shidacaipiaonenglijiushirengongzhinengpuhuiruoshiquntidezhongyaochangshi。

  zairengongzhinengyuzidonghuajishutidairenlilaodongyubufengongzuofangmian,ruguojinguanzhuyufazhanquanzidonghua,erhulveleduikechixufazhanmubiaozhongweirenleitigongtimiangongzuodeyuanjing,zeshiyizhongfumiandeyingyong。weilaiyingdalifazhanrenjixiezuodexinzhiye,tuidongrenyurengongzhineng、zidonghuaxitongfahuigezideyoushi,shixianshuangying。rengongzhinengyujiqirendeyingyongmubiaoyingdangshiweirenleijieshenggengduoshijianquzuogengyouchuangzaolidegongzuo,fahuirenleiyoushi。rurengongzhinengjishukebeiyongyujianqinggongzuozhefudan,cujingongzuoheshenghuodepingheng。

十大彩票  zairengongzhinengyingyongyukechixufazhanmubiaoxiangguanlingyushi,yingdangchongfenguanzhuqizhongdefengxianyulunliwenti,quebaojishude“shan”yong。zhiyouzaixiangguanlingyunenggouchixuxingqidaojijizuoyong,chixuxingtuidonglingyumubiaodeluoshi,bingzaiyingyongguochengzhongchixuguanzhubingjinkenengbimianqianzaidejishuyushehuifengxian,caishizhenzhengtuidongkechixufazhanderengongzhinengtansuoyuyingyong。

  3.不同文化相互包容相互借鉴的契机

十大彩票  tongguorengongzhinengtuijinkechixufazhanshiquanqiugongtongdeyuanjing,zaizhuduokechixufazhanxiangguanlingyu,ruyouzhijiaoyu、gongpinggongzheng、chengshifazhandeng,douyuwenhua、diyuxixixiangguan。meiyizhongwenhuayurengongzhinengjishudejieheduiyukechixufazhandoujianggongxianbutongshijiaodesikao,binggongxianyuduikechixufazhanzhangyuanmubiaodeshenkelijieyushijian。yinciyingdangbaorongbutongwenhua,xianghujiejian、qiutongcunyi、heerbutong、tongzhougongji。

  rengongzhinengjishudegaosufazhanwangwangfashengzaikeji、jingjipubianchuyulingxiandiweideguojiahediqu,zheijiangyoujidafengxianshidepinfuchajusuirengongzhinengdejinzhanerjinyibuxunsukuoda,shirengongzhinengyouqianzaifengxianjiasumataixiaoyingdexingcheng。yinci,rengongzhinengjishulingxiandeguojiahediquyingtongguokaifanggongxiang、quanqiuxiezuo,tuidongrengongzhinengjishuyushidacaipiaodepuhui,shizhongdishouruguojiahediquyenenggoujiezhurengongzhinengdebiangecujinshehuiyujingjifazhan,congerxieshoucujinkechixufazhanmubiaozaiquanqiudezaorishixian。

  shidacaipiaoguoshifuzerendedaguo,zairengongzhinengfangmianyeyouyidingdeyanfayoushihechanyeyoushi,yinciyegengyingzaishixianrengongzhinengpuhuiquanqiudeyuanjingzhongzuochuyingyoudegongxian。jianyishidacaipiaoguozaixinyidairengongzhinengfazhanguihuadejichushangzhenduituidongkechixufazhanmubiaojinyibuxihua,tuijinrengongzhinengyingyongyukechixufazhandegegelingyu。yucitongshi,jianlimianxiangquanqiukechixufazhanderengongzhinengzhiku、zaixiananliku、ziyuangongxiangku、gonggongshidacaipiaopingtaideng,youchanxueyanjiegongtongtuidongmianxiangkechixufazhanderengongzhinenggongyiyanjiujihua,bingxiangquanqiukaifangshenqing,yicizhichengrengongzhinengzuoweishinengjishutuidongquanqiukechixufazhanmubiaodeshixian,bingxiangquanqiukaifangyanjiuchengguo,tebieshizhichizhongdishouruguojiahediqu、“yidaiyilu”guojiahediqu,bingyurengongzhinenggengfadadeguojiashenduxiezuo、gongxiangjingyan、youshihubu,xieshoujiejuebutonglingyudenantiyurenleigongtongdetiaozhan,gongcukechixufazhan。

十大彩票  tongshi,yingguliguojiaxinyidairengongzhinengchuangxinshifanqu、guojiaxinyidairengongzhinengkaifangchuangxinpingtai、rengongzhinengchuangxinyingyongxiandaoqu、rengongzhinengxiangguankeyanjigoudengchuangxinzhutishenduxiezuo,jiehedingcengshejiyuzizhuguihua,jijitoushendaomianxiangkechixufazhanderengongzhinengshiyezhonglai。yinggulizhongguorengongzhinengqiyeyukeyanjigouxingchengchanyanronghedehezuomoshi,bingyingdangyuquanqiudekeyanjigouhechanyequzhangbuduan、kaifanggongying,xietongtongguoxinyidairengongzhinengzuoweishinengjishucujinquanqiudeshehui、jingjihehuanjingkechixufazhan,tuijinrenleimingyungongtongtidegoujianyushixian。

  (zuozhe: cengyi,xizhongguokexueyuanzidonghuayanjiusuoyanjiuyuan,beijingzhiyuanrengongzhinengyanjiuyuanrengongzhinenglunliyukechixufazhanzhongxinzhuren)

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